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Arguments Related to Translation: A Global Perspective




Abyev` wb‡q ev`vbyev`: ˆewk¦K †cÖÿvcU I evsjv‡`k



Abyev` wK, fv‡jv ev Lvivc Abyev` wK, Abyev‡`i cÖ‡qvRbxqZv wK, Abyev`K‡g©i cÖwZ `„wófw½ †Kgb nIqv DwPr, Abyev‡`i aiY I g~‡ji mv‡_ Abyev‡`i m¤úK© †Kgb nIqv `iKvi, Ab¨vb¨ ai‡Yi Abyev‡`i mv‡_ mvwn‡Z¨i Abyev‡`i cv_©K¨ wK, Abyev`‡Ki †hvM¨Zv †Kgb nIqv DwPr, Abyev`Z‡Ë¡i mv‡_ Abyev‡`i m¤úK© wK, Abyev`K‡K Abyev‡`i ZË¡ Rvbv Avek¨K wK bv, Abyev‡`i mv‡_ fvlv-ms¯‹…wZi m¤úK© wK, Abyev‡` †ckv`vwi‡Z¡i cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Av‡Q wK bv, Abyev`‡Ki cvwikÖwg‡Ki mv‡_ Abyev‡`i gv‡bi m¤úK© Av‡Q wK bv BZ¨vw` welq wb‡q weZ‡K©i †kl †bB| Z‡e mv¤úªwZK mg‡q Abyev` wel‡q e¨vcK M‡elYv I ZvwË¡K Áv‡bi cÖmv‡ii Kvi‡Y Abyev` msµvšÍ bvbv †avuqvmvi Reve †g‡j| wek¦vqY I Z_¨cÖhyw³i e¨vcK Dbœq‡bi mv‡_ mv‡_ GKw`‡K †hgb wek¦e¨vcx Abyev‡`i Pvwn`v e„w× cv‡”Q Ab¨w`‡K Abyev` welqwU GKv‡WwgK ch©v‡q GKwU ¯^Zš¿ wWwmwcøb ev Aa¨q‡bi welq wn‡m‡e AšÍf~©³ nIqvq wek¦e¨vcx Abyev` RM‡Z bZzb Ávb m„w÷ m¤¢e n‡”Q| eZ©gv‡b we‡k¦i bvbv wek¦we`¨vjq  ¯œvZK, ¯œv‡Zv‡KvËi I W‡±vivj ch©v‡q Abyev`we`¨vi (hv cvðv‡Z¨ ÔUªv݇jkb ÷vwWRÕ bv‡g cwiwPZ) Dci wWMÖx cÖ`vb Ki‡Q| wek¦e¨vcx Abyev`K‡`i bvbv msMVb, M‡elYv, Rvb©vj cÖKvk, wbqwgZ Kbdv‡iÝ Av‡qvRb BZ¨vw` †_‡KI Abyev` welqK Kg©Kv‡Ði MwZkxjZv jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| Avi nvjKv n‡jI GB nvIqv evsjv‡`‡ki cv‡j †j‡M‡Q hvi cÖgvY evsjv‡`‡ki K‡qKwU wek¦we`¨vj‡q ÔUªv݇jkb ÷vwWRÕ ‡Kvm© Pvjy, Abyev` wel‡q Kbdv‡iÝ Av‡qvRb, eB cÖKvk, M‡elYv BZ¨vw`|    
GK_v mZ¨ †h, Abyev` m¤ú‡K© wKQz †bwZevPK aviYv Abyev` A½‡b GLbI cªPwjZ Av‡Q hv A‡bK †ÿ‡Î †ek im‡evaK Ges Abyev`Kg©‡K huviv Lv‡Uv K‡i †`L‡Z Pvb †m mKj mgv‡jvP‡Ki/wb›`y‡Ki  Kv‡Q wcÖq| cÖ_‡gB aiv hvK, †mB BUvjxq cÖev`wU  ÔÎv`&`yB Îvw`‡Zv‡iÕ (Traduttore, Traditore) A_©vr  ÔAbyev`K n‡jv GKRb wek¦vmNvZKÕ| G aviYvi cUf~wg n‡jv BD‡iv‡ci †ui‡bmvÝ hy‡M hLb divmx Abyev`Kiv BUvjxi weL¨vZ Kwe `v‡šÍi (1265-1321)  KweZvi Abyev` cÖKvk K‡ib BUvwji A‡bK cwÐZ GmKj divmx Abyev‡` `v‡šÍi Kvwe¨K fvlv I welqe¯‘i Pig e¨vZ¨vq N‡U‡Q e‡j gZ cÖKvk K‡ib Ges divmx Abyev`K‡`i D‡Ïk¨ K‡i D‡jøwLZ gšÍe¨wU K‡ib| cieZx©‡Z G K_vwU cÖev`cªwZg n‡q AvšÍR©vwZKfv‡e kZvãxi ci kZvãx P‡j G‡m‡Q| Abyev` m¤ú‡K© Avi GKwU eûj cÖPwjZ aviYv n‡jv-   Ô†j we Bbwd‡WjÕ (“les belles infidèles”) ev Ômy›`ix Awek¦¯ÍÕ|  mß`k kZ‡Ki GKRb divmx `vk©wbK I †jLK wRjm& †g‡bR (1613-1692) GKUv Abyev` m¤ú‡K© gšÍ¨e¨ Ki‡Z wM‡q D‡jøwLZ gšÍe¨wU K‡ib|  †g‡bR †h Abyev`wU m¤ú‡K© gšÍe¨ K‡ib †mwU wQj myLcvV¨ Ges my›`i wKš‘wU Zv wQj g~‡ji ‡_‡K A‡bK `~‡i A_©vr my›`i wKš‘ Awek¦¯Í| K_vwU Bs‡iwR‡Z e¨vcK L¨vwZ †cj Gfv‡e- Translation is like a woman. If it is beautiful, it is not faithful. If it is faithful, it is most certainly not beautiful A_©vr Abyev` n‡jv bvixi g‡Zv| hw` my›`ix nq Z‡e wek¦¯Í nq bv, Avi hw` wek¦¯Í nq Zvn‡j my›`ix nq bv| Avevi KweZvi Abyev` m¤ú‡K© Av‡gwiKvb Kwe ievU© d«‡÷i †h Dw³wU D×…Z Kiv nq Zv n‡jvÑ "Poetry is what gets lost in translation"| cÖK…Zc‡ÿ KweZvi mÁv w`‡Z wM‡q ievU© d«÷ (1874-1963)  D‡jøwLZ gšÍe¨wU K‡iwQ‡jb| Z‡e Abyev` we‡kl K‡i KweZvi Abyev‡`i †ÿ‡Î Dw³wU D×…Z Kiv nq|  Abyev` wb‡q evsjv fvlv‡ZI GKUv K_v cÖPwjZ Av‡Q, Abyev` mvwnZ¨ cov gv‡b `y‡ai m¦v` †Nv‡j †gUv‡bv| iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Zvui wb‡Ri KweZvi Abyev` w`‡q †bv‡ej †c‡jI wZwb Abyev` wb‡q BwZevPK gšÍe¨ K‡ibwb| 1912 mv‡j MxZvÄjx: mO Advwism cÖKvwkZ nIqvi ci Ges GB Kve¨MÖ‡š’i Rb¨ 1913 mv‡j †bv‡ej cvIqvi ci DrmvwnZ n‡q iex›`ªbv_ cieZx© K‡qK eQ‡ii g‡a¨ wbR KweZvi Abyev` w`‡q Bsj¨vÛ †_‡K AviI cuvPwU Kve¨MÖš’ cÖKvk K‡ib, wKš‘ †m me MÖ‡š’i †Zgb †Kv‡bv mvov †g‡jwb| Gme Kvi‡Y Abyev` wb‡q iex›`ªbv‡_i †ek `ytL‡evaI wQj| KweZvi Abyev` cÖm‡½ wZwb gšÍe¨ K‡iwQ‡jb, ÒKweZvi Abyev` Kiv hvq bv, KweZvi Abyev` c‡ov bv|  KweZv jvRyK eayi g‡Zv, GK fvlvi AšÍ:cyi †_‡K Ab¨ fvlvi AšÍ:cy‡i hvevi mgq †m Avoó n‡q c‡o|Ó wb‡Ri KweZvi Abyev` cÖm‡½ GKwU wPwV‡Z AviI Zxeªfv‡e iex›`ªbv_ e‡j‡Qb, ÒevQzi g‡i †M‡j Zvi Afv‡e Mvfx hLb `ya w`‡Z Pvq bv, ZLb giv evQz‡ii PvgovUv Qvwo‡q wb‡q Zvi g‡a¨ Lo fwZ© K‡i GKUv K…wÎg g~wZ© ˆZwi Kiv nq, ZviB M‡Ü Ges †Pnvivi mv`„‡k¨ Mvfxi ¯Í‡b `y»ÿiY n‡Z _v‡K| ZR©gv †mB iKg giv evQz‡ii g~wZ© hvi AvnŸvb †bB, Qjbv Av‡Q|Ó[1]
Abyev` m¤ú‡K© mvavi‡Yi g‡a¨ AviI wKQz e×g~j aviYv n‡jv Abyev` KLbI g~‡ji mggh©v`vq Avmxb n‡Z cv‡i bv| Abyev` GKwU AšÍ¨R †kÖwYi wµqv| g~j hw` nq gv÷vi ev Zvn‡j Abyev` n‡jv mvi‡f›U ev f…Z¨| Avevi cyiælZvwš¿K DMÖ RvZxqZvev`x‡`i g‡Z g~‡ji mv‡_ Abyev‡`i m¤úK© n‡jv ¯^vgx-¯¿x †hLv‡b  ¯^vgx me©`vq Dc‡i Ges ¯¿x n‡jv Aaxb¯’ ev AvÁven| Avevi A‡b‡Ki aviYv, hviv †gŠwjK †Kv‡bv Mí-KweZv-Dcb¨vm wjL‡Z cv‡ibbv Zviv Abyev`K nb| Abyev` m¤ú‡K© Gme gšÍ‡e¨i D‡jøL K‡i  1931 mv‡j wn‡jqvi †ejK GK e³…Zvq e‡jb, Abyev` m¤ú‡K© †bwZevPK aviYv Abyev‡`i RM‡Z e¨vcK ÿwZ mvab K‡i‡Q Ges †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv †ÿ‡Î aŸsmB K‡i‡Q| wZwb Bw½Z w`‡qwQ‡jb  †h Abyev` m¤ú‡K© †bwZevPK aviYvi Kvi‡Y A‡bK †hvM¨Zv m¤úbœ Abyev`K  G RM‡Z cv iv‡Lbwb, Avevi A‡hvM¨‡`i c`PviYvq ÿwZ mvab n‡q‡Q| †ejK AviI e‡jb, cwinv‡mi welq GB †h, wek¦ mf¨Zvi BwZnv‡m Abyev‡`i f’wgKv ev cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Ges Abyev‡` `yinZvi wel‡q we‡klfv‡e ¸iæZ¡ bv w`‡q Abyev`‡K ïay Lv‡Uv K‡i †`Lvi Dci †Rvi ‡`Iqv n‡q‡Q|Ó[2]  
hv‡nvK, DwbkkZ mˇii `kK ‡_‡K ‰ewk¦K ‡cÖÿvc‡U Abyev` RM‡Z e¨vcK cwieZ©Y Av‡m hw`I †m cwieZ©‡Yi †Quvqv me©Î mgvb bq Ges bv nIqviB K_v KviY me mgvR I ms¯‹…wZ‡Z Abyev‡`i cÖ‡qvRbxqZv †hgb GK bq †Zgwb Abyev` m¤ú‡K© aviYvI GK bq| Z‡e wek¦vq‡bi hy‡M we‡k¦i †Kvb& cÖv‡šÍ wK NU‡Q †m m¤ú‡K© Aek¨B Rvbv `iKvi| D‡jøwLZ `k‡Ki †k‡li w`‡K ÒUªvb‡¯økb ÷vwWRÓ bv‡g ¯^Zš¿ GKwU wWwmwcø‡bi Rb¥ nq|[3] c~‡e© Abyev` msµvšÍ Av‡jvPbv g~jZ: mvwn‡Z¨i Abyev‡`i g‡a¨ mxgve× wQj Ges Abyev‡`i mgv‡jvPbvq g~j I Abyev‡`i g‡a¨ wgj ev Miwg‡ji welqwUB g~L¨ wQj| BmivB‡ji †Zj Avweew¯’Z cwÐZ Bfvb †Rvnvi (1939-) Abyev` m¤ú‡K© Ôcwjwm‡÷gÕ bv‡g †h ZË¡ w`‡jb †mLv‡b Abyev‡`i †KvqvwjwU ev ¸bv¸‡Yi †Kv‡bv evjvB †bB| Abyev` Avi g~‡ji g‡a¨I _vK‡jv bv †Zgb wefvRb| KvQvKvwQ mg‡q Rvg©vbxi nvb&m fviwgqvi (1930-2010) Ô¯‹‡cvmÕ bv‡g †h ZË¡ w`‡jb †mLv‡bI g~j I Abyev‡`i cv_©K¨ AveQv n‡q †Mj|  divmx Rb¥™¢zZ Av‡gwiKvb cwÐZ RR© †÷Bbvi Abyev` msµvšÍ Zuvi wek¦weL¨vZ MÖš’ AvdUvi e¨v‡ej (1975)-G †Zv e‡jB em‡jb ÔGfwi G¨v± Ae KwgDwb‡Kkb BR Uªv݇jkbÕ A_©vr Ô‡hvMv‡hvM ev fve cÖKv‡ki cÖwZwU Kg©B Abyev`|Õ
Bfvb †Rvnv‡ii (1939-) Ôcwjwm‡÷gÕ ZË¡ Abymv‡i ‡Kv‡bv wbw`©ó †`k ev mgv‡R mvwn‡Z¨i Abyev‡`i Ae¯’vb e¨vL¨v Kiv hvq|  Bfvb †Rvnvi Abyev`‡K wewQbœfv‡e bv †`‡L Abyev‡`i mv‡_ ms¯‹…wZ, ¯’vb, Kvj, cv‡Îi ms‡hv‡Mi e¨vL¨v w`‡q eywS‡q w`‡jb †h GKwU †`‡k ev mgv‡R RvZxq mvwn‡Z¨i †h aviv weivR K‡i ZviB g‡a¨ Abyev` GKUv ¯’vb `Lj K‡i Ges †m ¯’vb n‡Z cv‡i G‡Kev‡i cÖavb Avev †MŠY| †ek K‡qKwU †`k I ms¯‹…wZ‡Z Abyev‡`i Z_¨ Dc¯’vcb K‡i †Rvnvi ‡`Lv‡jb †h †Kv‡bv †`‡k ev mgv‡R wbR/RvZxq fvlvi mvwnZ¨ hLb wkï ch©vq ev MVb ch©v‡q _v‡K †mLv‡b Ab¨ fvlvi mvwnZ¨ †_‡K Abyev‡`i cÖeYZv †ewk _v‡K Ges Abyev` mvwnZ¨B †mLv‡b †m›Uªvj ev †K›`ªxq ch©v‡q _v‡K| RvZxq mvwnZ¨v½‡b GKUv M¨vc ev ïY¨Zv weivR Ki‡jI Zv Abyev` w`‡q c~Y© Kivi cÖeYZv _v‡K| wecixZµ‡g †Kv‡bv †`‡k hLb †`kxq ev RvZxq ch©v‡qi mvwnZ¨ Lye mg„× nq †mLv‡b Abyev` mvwn‡Z¨i ¸iæZ¡ Kg _v‡K Ges Abyev` Kg nq| †m‡ÿ‡Î †`kxq mvwnZ¨ _v‡K †K‡›`ª Avi Abyev` mvwnZ¨ _v‡K †cwi‡dwi ev cÖv‡šÍ| Bfvb †Rvn‡ii G ZË¡wU evsjv‡`‡k evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i ‡ÿ‡Î cÖ‡hvR¨| evsjv fvlvi Avw` I ga¨ hy‡M A_©vr evsjv mvwnZ¨ hLb GKUv cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡i wQj ZLb Abyev` mvwn‡Z¨i AvwaK¨ †`Lv hvq Ges G Abyev` mvwnZ¨¸‡jv  evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i ej‡qi g‡a¨ †K‡›`ª Ae¯’vb Ki‡Zv| K…wËev‡mi ivgvqY, gvjvai emyi kxK…òweRq (hv fMeZ Aej¤^‡b iwPZ), h‡kvivR Lv‡bi K…òg½j, wØR gva‡ei fvMeZ Aej¤^‡b iwPZ kÖxK…òg½j; kvn †gvnv¤§` mMx‡ii BDmyd-‡Rv‡jLv (dvimx mvwnZ¨ †_‡K †bIqv); †`ŠjZ KvRxi mZx gqbv (cwðgv †fvRcix fvlvq cÖPwjZ GKUv Kvwnbx|); AjvI‡ji cÙveZx (A‡hva¨vi Kwe gvwjK gn¤§` Rvqmxi c`ygveZx Aej¤^‡b)| G Kve¨¸‡jv Ab¨ fvlv I mvwnZ¨ †_‡K AvnwiZ n‡jI evsjv fvlv mvwn‡Z¨ Zv †gŠwjKZ¡ jvf K‡i| wKš‘ AvaywbK hy‡M hLb evsjv mvwnZ¨ e¨vcK mg„w× jvf K‡i ZLb Abyev` mvwn‡Z¨i cwigvY K‡g hvq Ges RvZxq mvwn‡Z¨i ej‡q Abyev` mvwnZ¨ cÖvwšÍK Ae¯’v‡b P‡j hvq| D`vniY¯^iæc ejv hvq †k·wcqvi, wgëb ev Uj÷‡qi evsjv Abyev` hZB fv‡jv †nvK bv †Kb evsjv‡`‡k G Abyev` MÖš’¸‡jvi Ae¯’vb gvB‡Kj, bRiæj ev kir mvwn‡Z¨i Ic‡i bq| GQvov evsjv fvlv I mvwnZ¨ A‡bK mg„× Ae¯’v‡b _vKvi Kvi‡Y  evsjv‡`‡k eZ©gv‡b cÖwZ eQi evsjvq hZ mvwn‡Z¨i eB cÖKvwkZ nq Zvi kZKiv 2 fv‡MiI Kg cÖKvwkZ nq evsjvq iwPZ we‡`kx Abyev` mvwnZ¨|
nvb&m fviwgqv‡ii Ô¯‹‡cvmÕ ZË¡wUI Avgiv evsjv Abyev` mvwn‡Z¨i †ejvq wgwj‡q †`L‡Z cvwi| Ô¯‹‡cvmÕ n‡jv GKwU MÖxK kã hvi A_© D‡Ïk¨| GB Z‡Ë¡i Av‡jv‡K ejv hvq GKwU fvlv †_‡K Ab¨ GKwU fvlvq †Kv‡bv wKQz Abyev` wKfv‡e Ki‡Z n‡e Zv wbf©i Ki‡e H mvwnZ¨Kg© Abyev‡`i D‡Ïk¨ ev Uv‡M©U wK Zvi Ici| D‡Ïk¨ nvwm‡ji Rb¨ Abyev‡`i aiY wba©viY Ki‡Z n‡e| D`vniY¯^iæc, †Kv‡bv Abyev‡`i D‡Ïk¨ hw` nq ïay Z‡_¨i Dc¯’cbv Zvn‡j Abyev` Ki‡Z n‡e wVK  †mfv‡e hv‡Z Z_¨ wVK _v‡K| Avevi †Kv‡bv Abyev‡`i D‡Ïk¨ hw` nq mvwn‡Z¨i im¯^¦v`b Zvn‡j Abyev` n‡e bv›`wbKZvi welqwU gv_vq †i‡L Ges †m‡ÿ‡Î Z‡_¨i Dc¯’vcbv cÖavb bq| Kv‡RB Abyev‡` wek¦¯ÍZv-Awe¯ÍZvi welqwU Avi g~L¨ _vK‡jv bv| cÖm½Z: iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi hLb Zvi KweZvi Abyev` K‡iwQ‡jb †m¸‡jv wZwb K‡iwQ‡jb Bsj¨v‡Ûi Bs‡iR cvVK‡`i K_v gv_vq †i‡L| wZwb KweZv wbe©vPb †_‡K ïiæ K‡i Zvi evsjv MxwZ KweZvi Aeqe †f‡½ Z`vwbšÍb Bs‡iwR M`¨ KweZvi av‡P Bs‡iR cvVKiv hv‡Z mšÍyô nq †mfv‡eB mvwR‡qwQ‡jb| iex›`ªbv‡_i Abyev` g~‡ji †_‡K A‡bK `~‡i wKš‘ Abyev‡`i D‡Ïk¨ mdj n‡q‡Q| welqwU Av‡›`ª †j‡dwfqv‡ii (1945-1996) ZË¡ w`‡q AviI cwi¯‹vi K‡i e¨vL¨v Kiv hvq| †j‡dwfqvi ej‡jb Abyev` n‡jv GK ai‡bi cybwj©Lb| wZwb AviI ej‡jb †h GB cybwj©Lb †h fvlv I mvwn‡Z¨ Kiv n‡PQ Zvi BwWI‡jvwR ev bg© Ges †m fvlvq †jLvi †h †KŠkj  (†cv‡qwU·) weivR Ki‡Q †mwU Øviv cÖfvweZ| welqwU iex›`ªbv‡_i MxZvÄjx:mO Advwism Gi †ÿ‡Î cy‡ivcywi wg‡j hvq †Kbbv iex›`ªbv_ †hgb GKw`‡K Zvi MxwZKweZvi Av`j †f‡½ mgmvgwqK Bs‡iwR M`¨ KweZvi Av`‡j Ki‡jb A_©vr Bs‡iwR †cv‡qwU· AbymiY Ki‡jb Ab¨w`‡K g~j evsjv KweZvi A‡bK wKQzB cwieZ©Y K‡i Bs‡iwR av‡P mg„× Ki‡jb hv‡Z K‡i Bsj¨v‡Ûi cvV‡Kiv (hviv wQj ZrKvwjb fvi‡Zi Jcwb‡ewkK ¸iæ) Lywk nq A_©vr Bs‡iR gvbwlKZv Øviv cÖfvweZ n‡jb|
hv‡nvK, c~‡e©B D‡jøL Kiv n‡q‡Q †h Abyev‡`i cÖ‡qvRbxqZv, Abyev` PP©v ev Abyev‡`i M‡elYv mKj †`k ev ms¯‹…wZ‡Z mgvb bq| G‡ÿ‡Î ejv hvq cvk¦©eZx© ‡`k fvi‡Z Abyev` PP©v, Abyev‡`i cÖwkÿb I Abyev` wb‡q  covïbv I M‡elYvi †h DÏxcbv †`Lv hvq evsjv‡`‡k †miKg bq| fviZ  eûfvwlK †`k nIqvi Kvi‡Y Ges Bs‡iwR GKUv wØZxq fvlv nIqvi Kvi‡Y †mLv‡b Avf¨šÍwiYfv‡eB hZUv  Bs‡iwR Abyev‡`i Pvwn`v  Abyf’Z nq evsjv‡`‡k ZZUv nq bv KviY mvgvb¨ e¨vwZµg Qvov evsjv‡`‡k g~jZ GKwU fvlv evsjvB me©Î e¨en«Z nq| fvi‡Zi wewfbœ fvlvi †hgb evsjv, wnw›` ev ¸RivwU fvlvi mvwnZ¨ Bs‡iwR‡Z Abyw`Z n‡q fviZ †_‡K cÖKvwkZ n‡j Avf¨šÍwib evRv‡i hZUv evwbwR¨Kfv‡e mdj n‡Z cv‡i evsjv‡`‡k †mwU nq bv|  †mKvi‡Y †`Lv hvq evsjv‡`k ¯^vaxb nIqvi ci evsjv GKv‡Wwg ev `-yGKwU e¨vw³ gvwjKvbvaxb cÖKvkbv cÖwZôvb KZ…K evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i D‡jøL‡hvM¨ msL¨K MÖš’ cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q wKš‘ †m¸‡jvi weµq nZvkve¨ÄK, Avi †KbB ev bq GKgvÎ GKv‡WwgK †Kv‡bv KviY Qvov evsjvfvlx cvVK evsjv mvwnZ¨ †Kb Bs‡iwR‡Z co‡Z hv‡e| miKvwifv‡e RvZxq mvwnZ¨‡K evsjv fvlvi MwÛ AwZµg Kwi‡q hw` wek¦f’e‡b †cuŠQv‡Z nq Zvn‡j Abyev‡`i ¯‹‡cvm w_qwi Kv‡R jvMv‡Z n‡e| evsjv GKv‡Wgx KZ©„K cÖKvwkZ n‡q evsjv GKv‡Wwgi ¸`v‡g c‡o _vK‡j ‡m Abyev‡`i cÖPvi-cÖmvi wKfv‡e n‡e|
GK_v A¯^xKvi Kivi Dcvq †bq †h evsjv‡`‡k Abyev‡`i †Zgb Pvwn`v †bB| GLv‡b mvwn‡Z¨i Abyev‡`i cvkvcwk i‡q‡Q Ab¨vb¨ ai‡Yi Abyev‡`i Pvwn`v| we‡k¦i AwaKvsk †`‡k GLb Abyev` GKwU wkí Ges †ckvMZ †ÿÎ| we‡k¦i wewfšœ †`‡k GLb Abyev`Kiv Zv‡`i wb‡R‡`i †ckvMZ Dbœqb I  Zv‡`i AwaKvi Av`vq ev msiÿ‡Yi Rb¨  †ckvMZ msMVb ‰Zwi K‡i‡Qb Ges Ki‡Qb| evsjv‡`‡k GLbI Abyev`Kg©‡K †Zgb g~jvqb Kiv nqbv| GLv‡b Abyev`K‡g©i cvwikÖwgK AZ¨šÍ Kg| d‡j †hvM¨Zvm¤úbœ Abyev`K G K‡g© Drmvn †eva K‡ibbv| hviv GKvšÍ fvjevmvi LvwZ‡i G Kg© K‡i _v‡Kb Zv‡`i welq wfbœ| evsjv‡`‡k Abyev`Kg©‡K GLbI msKxY© `„wó w`‡q †`Lvi cÖeYZv jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| Abyev‡`i mgv‡jvPbvq †mB  MZvbycwZK wek¦¯Í-Awek¦mÍ, AvÿwiK-¯^vaxb, fvlvZvwZ¥K we‡kølY GB k㸇jvB e¨en«Z nq| eZ©gvb we‡k¦ Bs‡iwR AvšÍR©vwZK fvlv nIqvi Kvi‡Y Bs‡iwR fvlvi mv‡_ Ab¨fvlvi Abyev` mgm¨v wb‡q e¨vcK M‡elYv n‡jI evsjvi mv‡_ LyeB bMb¨| cwi‡k‡l, ˆewk¦K †cÖÿvc‡U evsjv‡`‡k `iKvi-  Abyev`‡K †ckv`vwi‡Z¡i ch©v‡q DwbœZ Kiv, Abyev`K‡`i AwaKvi Av`v‡qi Rb¨ †ckvMZ msMVb ˆZwi Kiv, Ab¨vb¨ †ckvi gZ Abyev`K‡`i cÖwkÿY I Ab¨vb¨ Kg©Kv‡Ûi ga¨ w`‡q D‡Ëv‡ivËi `ÿZv e„w×i †Póv Kiv, Abyev`K‡`i‡K AvšÍR©vwZKfv‡e mshy³ nIqv, wbqwgZ m‡¤§jb ev Kbdv‡i‡Ýi Av‡qvRb Kiv Ges Abyev`Kg© I Abyev` Z‡Ë¡i g‡a¨ mgš^q mvab Kiv|       


[1] D×…Z Kexi †PŠayix, ÒcÖm½ Abyev`Ó, cÖeÜ msMÖn, XvKv: wkíZiæ cÖKvkbx,1992, c„. 87-88
[2] wn‡jqvi †ejK, Ab Uªvb‡¯økb, A·‡dvW©: K¬v‡ibWb †cÖm, 1931
[3] 1972 mv‡ji †Kv‡cb‡n‡M‡b A¨vcøvBW wj½yw÷K wel‡q 3q AvšÍR©vwZK m‡¤§jb AbywôZ nq| GB m‡¤§j‡bi Uªvb‡¯økb †mKk‡b †b`vij¨v‡Ûi †Rg&m †nvg&m GKv‡WwgK ch©v‡q Uªvb‡¯økb Aa¨q‡bi GKUv iæc‡iLv Dc¯’vcb K‡ib hv e¨vcKfv‡e mvov hvq Ges mZ¡‡ii `k‡Ki †kl w`‡K  ÔUªvb‡¯økb ÷vwWRÕ bv‡g ¯^Zš¿ †Kvm© I wefvM Pvjy nIqv ïiæ nq|

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